What is Windows? Advantages, Disadvantages And History of The Windows Operating System


Windows has been in existence and continuously evolving for 38 years. With over 90% market share globally, Windows remains the leading operating system. In this article, let’s explore the history and development of Windows with Getnada, and delve into the intense competition between Windows and macOS!

What is Windows?


Windows (or Microsoft Windows) is an operating system developed and distributed by Microsoft, based on a graphical user interface. This operating system includes multiple versions designed to serve various computing industries. Initially, the first version of Windows was researched from 1981 as an extension of the MS-DOS platform, aiming to compete with Apple’s operating system.

With continuous development through different versions, Windows quickly became one of the most popular operating systems in the world, capturing over 90% of the personal computer market share. As of June 2021, Windows was installed on over 1.3 billion devices globally, solidifying its position as one of the most important and favored operating platforms today.

Windows has undergone a diverse and innovative development history, starting from the release of Windows 1.0 in 1985. Since then, the operating system has witnessed the birth of many significant versions such as Windows 95, Windows XP, Windows 7, and Windows 10.

Among these versions, Windows XP stands out as one of Microsoft’s greatest successes, with over 500 million copies sold from 2001 until support ended in 2014. However, there were challenges, such as the controversial and criticized Windows 8 for its interface design and software compatibility issues.

Currently, the latest version is Windows 11, released in 2021. Windows 11 introduces many new features and significant user interface improvements, representing a crucial step in the development of the Windows operating system, enhancing user experience and meeting the increasingly high demands of the modern techology market.

Pros and Cons of Windows Operating System

Below are the pros and cons of Windows:


Windows has a significant market share advantage, attracting the attention of hardware manufacturers and software developers. As a result, the variety of devices and applications supporting Windows is extensive and diverse.

Successive versions of Windows typically inherit the basic features of their predecessors, making it easy for users to get familiar and use.

Microsoft always provides users with free upgrade and update packages to optimize the stability and security of the devices.

From Windows 8 onwards, the Windows platform is designed to support touchscreen devices well, catering to the diverse and flexible usage needs of modern users.


The biggest downside of Windows is its attraction to hackers due to its large user base, leading to the development of viruses, spyware, and malware targeting the platform. This poses a significant challenge in enhancing security, requiring users to frequently and thoroughly update patches. However, Windows has never stopped encountering cybersecurity and security issues.

History of Windows Development

Microsoft’s Windows operating system has gone through many stages of ups and downs and innovation. Let’s go through the history of Windows through each phase to understand more about the formation and development process of this operating platform.

Phase 1: Birth and Early Windows Versions (1985 – 1995)

Windows 1.0

The first phase of Windows began in 1985 when Microsoft introduced Windows 1.0. At this time, Windows was just a graphical interface running on MS-DOS. Although not very successful, Windows 1.0 laid the foundation for later versions. The Windows 2.x versions released from 1987 to 1990 brought significant improvements in interface and features. This period also saw Windows attracting more attention and becoming more popular in the computer market. From 1990 to 1994, Windows 3.x emerged with considerable improvements, enhancing performance and hardware compatibility. The Windows 3.1 version, in particular, became one of the most successful versions in this phase of Windows.

Phase 2: Windows 9x (1995 – 2001)


This phase started with the release of Windows 95, a significant milestone for Microsoft. Windows 95 introduced a completely new user interface with the famous “Start” button and Taskbar. This operating system also supported Plug and Play technology, making hardware installation and use easier. Windows 95 became a crucial milestone, boosting the popularity of Windows globally. Next was Windows 98, released in 1998, which continued to improve the user interface and hardware support. Windows 98 also marked the debut of Internet Explorer, Microsoft’s web browser, becoming an integral part of the Windows operating system for many years. Windows ME (Millennium Edition), released in 2000, was the last version in the Windows 9x series. However, Windows ME was not highly rated due to performance and stability issues, similar to the later Windows 8.

Phase 3: Windows XP (2001 – 2006)

Windows Xp

Windows XP was launched in 2001, combining Microsoft’s two product lines, Windows 9x and Windows NT. With an attractive user interface, better stability, and higher security, Windows XP quickly became one of the most successful Windows versions of all time. Windows XP continued to be improved and supported for many years through various service pack versions.

Phase 4: Windows Vista (2006 – 2009)

Windowx Vista

Windows Vista was released in 2006, bringing many changes in user interface and system architecture. However, Vista encountered many issues such as incompatibility with many software and hardware, leading to user dissatisfaction. Many users reported slow performance with Vista, especially on older computers. Despite this, Vista had a beautiful interface, enhanced search tools, and new features like quick file sharing and printing through the network.

Phase 5: Windows 7 (2009 – 2015)

Windows 7

Windows 7 marked an important milestone in the history of Windows development. Launched in 2009, Windows 7 was designed to address the shortcomings of Windows Vista and provide a better user experience. With significant improvements in performance and stability, Windows 7 quickly received high praise from users. The user interface was adjusted, simplified, and optimized to offer a more comfortable and user-friendly experience. Additionally, Windows 7 enhanced security and network connectivity features. Thanks to these improvements, it quickly became one of the most popular and widely used Windows versions worldwide. Microsoft continued to affirm its position in the operating system market and continued to develop subsequent Windows versions.

Phase 6: Windows 8 (2012 – 2015)

Windows 8

Windows 8, released in 2012, was a major breakthrough in interface design for touch devices. However, this design faced much criticism from users for being difficult to use and not user-friendly. To improve the situation, Microsoft quickly released Windows 8.1 in 2013. Windows 8.1 was designed to adjust and improve some issues of Windows 8, including adding more interface customization options, enhancing compatibility, and increasing performance. However, despite these improvements, Windows 8.1 still did not fully meet user needs and satisfaction.

Phase 7: Windows 10 (2015 – 2021)

Windows 10

Windows 10, launched in 2015, marked an important step in Microsoft’s history. Combining the best elements from Windows 7 and Windows 8, this operating system provided a friendly, powerful, and flexible user interface. Windows 10 was continuously updated by Microsoft through major versions, bringing new features and performance improvements. With these enhancements, Windows 10 was highly rated as one of the best Windows versions ever.

Phase 8: Windows 11 (2021 – …)

Windows 11

Windows 11, launched in 2021, represents a new step for the Windows operating system. With an improved and optimized user interface for touch devices and large screens, Windows 11 offers fresh and modern experiences. Notably, Windows 11 supports running Android applications, expanding compatibility and enhancing the flexibility of the operating system. Although still facing many challenges, Windows 11 promises to continue driving the development and progress of the Windows platform in the future.

Phase 9: Windows 12

According to sources from Windows Central, the Windows 12 operating system is expected to be officially released by Microsoft in October 2024. This is part of their development strategy, with a cycle of about three years to launch a new version after Windows 11 was released in 2021.

The Battle Between Windows and macOS

Windows Vs Macos

In the technology industry, the race between the two giants, Windows and macOS, has been ongoing for decades. Each side has implemented its strategies and tools to attract users and dominate the market.

Relentless Competition

Windows: Diversity and Flexibility Windows always stands out with its diversity and flexibility in supporting hardware and software. This offers users many choices, from personal computers to gaming devices. Especially, Windows is highly regarded in the gaming community due to strong support from developers and the gaming community.

macOS: Class and Safety On the other hand, macOS stands out with its class and safety. Apple focuses on sophisticated design and product quality, creating a difference from competitors. The macOS operating system is also highly rated for security, providing users with peace of mind when using.

Intensifying Battle

Hardware: In the hardware battlefield, diversity and choice are crucial factors for users. Windows stands out with broad support for diverse devices and configurations, from low-cost computers to specialized machines. This helps Windows attract a large number of users with different needs and technical conditions. In contrast, macOS is only available on Apple devices, limiting user choices and primarily targeting the creative market and users who prefer synchronization in Apple’s ecosystem.

Applications: The never-ending race in the application battlefield between Windows and macOS always brings intense emotions. Windows remains strong with a vast application store, meeting various user needs. However, macOS is putting all its efforts into improving application quality, using the Apple ecosystem to bring a smoother and more enjoyable user experience. This effort helps macOS shorten the gap with Windows in the application race by focusing on quality and system compatibility, highly valued by creative users.

Pricing: In the pricing battle, the competition between Windows and macOS always concerns users. Windows stands out with many price ranges suitable for various customer groups, from individuals to businesses. For macOS, the price is usually higher, targeting high-end customers willing to pay more for quality and exceptional user experience. This difference in pricing strategy between the two rivals makes the competition increasingly fierce, with each side striving to attract and retain users by meeting different market needs and expectations.

Never-Ending Battle

Ultimately, user choice will be the most crucial factor determining the victory in the battle between Windows and macOS. Each operating system has its strengths and weaknesses, suitable for different user needs and preferences. Windows attracts with its flexibility and wide compatibility, helping users easily adapt to various devices and applications. In contrast, macOS stands out with luxurious design, high stability, and top-notch security, providing a smooth and safe experience for users, especially for creative needs and tasks requiring high synchronization. The competition between these two operating systems continues to be a relentless race, with each side striving to attract and retain users with distinctive features and suitable strategies.

Although the competition between Windows and macOS remains intense, this rivalry has created a strong motivation for the development of both operating systems. This healthy competition has pushed Microsoft and Apple to continuously improve their products, bringing increasingly refined user experiences and meeting the diverse needs of users worldwide.

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